# Number Bonds

These past few weeks have been a bit busy for me. So much great stuff has been going on, but I haven’t had a chance to write about any of it. This week, I forced myself to sit down and write a little bit so I don’t forget all of it.

One of the things I’ve been thinking about is how to develop number sense with young students. Building strong number sense is one of the most important things elementary school teachers can do. There are many ways to do it and I’ve been trying to figure out the advantages and disadvantages of different strategies.

The activities that are particularly interesting to me help develop students’ ability to decompose and recompose numbers. Understanding that a whole can be composed from different parts is a big idea for students. They don’t see a connection between all the different facts that for example, add to 8.

Students who develop these connections will have an easier time developing the big idea of decomposing numbers. When faced with a fact like 9 + 6, they can think about decomposing either of the numbers into parts that may make the calculation easier. For example, by decomposing the 6 into 1+ 5, they can think about adding the 1 to the 9 to make 10 and then adding the 5 to the 10 to get 15.

So how do we help students decompose and recompose numbers?

Number bonds are one way. I like them because they can help students visualize the different parts that can be used to create a certain number.

You can start by having students use hands-on materials, like cubes and counters, and asking them to find all the different ways they can break a number into parts. They can then represent what they are doing with a picture. Here are some different number bond diagrams for the number 8.

After students have had lots of practice with hands-on materials and drawing diagrams, they can then move to using numbers.

I like number bonds because they provide a nice visual for students to use to think about decomposing and recomposing numbers. Of course, this is just the beginning. Students then need to think about strategies for decomposing and recomposing numbers in ways that help make computations easier. However, I think it’s important to make sure students have this foundation.

What do you think? Do you use number bonds with your students? Are they helpful?

Want to know more? Check out: Baroody, A. J. (2006). Mastering the Basic Number Combinations. Teaching Children Mathematics, 23.

# Teaching Time

I started the race at 7:54 am and crossed the finish line at 10:27 am.  How long did it take me to run the race?

This problems, often labeled as elapsed time problems, are difficult for students to solve.  One reason is that students often have trouble coordinating between the two different units–hours and minutes.  In fact, in one study, only 58% of eighth-grade knew that 150 minutes is equal to 2 1/2 hours (Jones and Arbaugh 2004).

I recently witnessed this first hand in a third grade class. The students really struggled with these types of problems. Many students wanted to subtract 754 from 1027. I didn’t know what to do. So I went to the research and found some work by Juli Dixon that used open number lines to help students reason about these types of problems.

Open number lines can be used by students to count up, count down and find distances between numbers.

Here’s one way to use the open number line to solve the problem above.

Now, that’s not the first problem I had students begin with, but I wanted you to get a sense of how the open number line works.

Dixon also notes that you should allow students to use the number line in ways that make sense to them. You should not prescribe one way of using it to solve a problem, as there are multiple ways that work. Students can share the different strategies with the class.

As I’ve mentioned before, I’m all for diagrams that allow students to reason about problems. In this case, I love that the diagrams allow for students to record what is happening as it is very hard to keep track of all the steps. I’ll talk more about how I built up to this another time, but I’m curious to hear what you have done with your students.

Want to know more?  Check out the articles below:

Dixon, Juli K. “Tracking Time.” Teaching Children Mathematics, 19 (August 2008): 18-24

Jones, Dustin L., and Fran Arbaugh. “What Do Students Know about Time?” Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School 10 (September 2004): 82–84.

Monroe, Eula Ewing, Michelle P. Orme, and Lynnette B. Erickson. “Working Cotton: Toward an Understanding of Time.” Teaching Children Mathematics 8 (April 2002): 475–79.

# Draw a Picture: Check out the webinar

In March, I did a session for Global Math Department on drawing diagrams. If you don’t know about Global Math Department, you should check it out. They present free video conferences and webinars every Tuesday night and you can join in and participate that night or you can watch the recording later if you can’t make it.  Here’s the recording of my talk.

It was an interesting experience for me. I find that whenever I have to write a blog post or prepare a presentation, I learn more about the topic. The process of synthesizing and preparing the message I want to deliver forces me to think about the content in different ways.

It was also a unique experience because it was a different type of interaction with the audience than I’m used to. When I do workshops, I can read the body language of the members and I can interact with them differently. My workshops are also much more interactive and I do far less talking than the participants. With the webinar I did, I could read the comments and interact that way but it was a different form of communication for me.

I’ve been thinking a lot about how to foster learning with teachers. What activities help them develop new ideas? When I look at my own learning, the experiences that help me are sometimes listening to talks or reading books or articles. But I think experiencing new ways of learning math and then trying these methods out with students help the most.

I’m really interested in how to create different learning experiences for teachers.  I’d love to hear any ideas you have or more about what learning experiences have been helpful for you.

# Using pictures as a tool to justify

One of the things that is particularly interesting to me right now is how we help young students develop the ability to justify why things work in math. Often, kids know the correct rule but have no idea why the rule works. When I ask them to explain why a rule works, they wind up just listing the steps of the procedure.

Part of developing a conceptual understanding in math is being able to anticipate what procedure to use and why that procedure works.  For example, when I am trying to convert a mixed number into an improper fraction, I don’t simply need to know that I multiply the denominator by the number of wholes and add the numerator.  I also need to know why that rule works and why it will give me the correct number of parts in the mixed number.

I’ve found that children (and even adults) can have a really hard time writing or even explaining out loud their justification for why something works.  They often say “I know why but I can’t explain it.”

Recently, I have noticed that drawing diagrams or pictures is one way to help them begin to justify.  It’s as if the diagram allows them a way to make explicit what they are doing when they perform a calculation.

For example, the other day I was working with a group of elementary school teachers on fractions.  They worked in groups to draw the pictures like the one below to show why the calculations they performed worked.

It was an interesting experience for them because they had to think deeply about what it really means to say, multiply fractions, as opposed to just remembering the formula.  It also gave them something to refer to when explaining to the rest of the class.

I’m currently digging through the research on this, but I’m curious to hear what your experience has been. What do you do to help student justify in math?

# Using Diagrams to Make Sense of Fraction Word Problems

I’ve been spending a lot of time in schools and classrooms these past two weeks using diagrams with students and teachers. As a result, I’ve been neglecting this blog but I’ve been learning so much. Hopefully, I’ll start making more time to write about what I’m doing.

Here’s the latest problem I’ve been tackling with students:

Each lap around the lake is 3 ¾ miles long. Nicora runs two-thirds of a lap and then stops.  How many miles did she run?

Some students have no idea how to get started. Others add the two fractions. Others convert the mixed number to an improper fraction and then multiply.  Of the ones who chose to multiply, many make mistakes–they convert the mixed number to an improper fraction incorrectly, they forget the rule for multiplying fractions or they forget how to convert the product to a mixed number.

Students with a strong understanding of fractions and good number sense could do the problem in their head. They thought about decomposing 3 ¾ into 3 parts and then taking two of them. The million dollar question is “why don’t the other students see the problem this way?”

In an effort to help them see the problem differently, this is how we worked on it together.

First, I asked them to tell me about the problem in their own words.  Was it about cupcakes?  Unicorns?  What is going on in the story?  I’ve found that many students need to be forced to think about what the problem is asking them to do because they are so used to circling numbers and randomly picking an operation to solve them.

I then asked them to draw a bar that shows how far a lap is.

Next, I asked them to show how far two-thirds is.

Finally, I asked them to figure out how many miles two-thirds of the lap was.  Some decomposed the three and then the three-fourths.  Others used guess and check.

After we did a series of similar problems, I asked students to solve the problem without actually drawing the diagram. When they had to picture the diagram in their head, they started to develop shortcuts. One student told me that she could just divide the whole number into three and divide the fraction into three and then add them together to get the amount for one-third.  To find two-thirds, she thought about doubling the amount for one-third.

I wanted to share this example with you all because I think it shows how representations can help make explicit what may be obvious to other students. I also think it shows a nice progression of how students can use a representation to build a strategy to solve the problem.  How is this different than telling them the procedure?  Because the students build a process to solve the problem that makes sense to them.  Furthermore, they can always go back to the diagram if they forget the procedure.  So often, I find that students don’t forgot things because they are lazy, but rather because the procedure never made sense to them to begin with. My goal is to help students build on what makes sense to them, not to show them an algorithm that makes sense to me, but may not make sense to them yet.

# Using diagrams to ease the transition to algebra

People sometimes feel compelled to tell me how much they hate math. When I ask when this started, many point to algebra (the rest say fractions, but we can talk about that another day).

We know that many students struggle when they get to algebra. Researchers have been studying how to ease this transition through “early algebra.” They found that simply introducing traditional algebra concepts at an early age isn’t the answer.

Instead, Blanton & Kaput (2005) talk about “algebrafying” the elementary school curriculum, in which elementary school concepts are developed in a way that allows generalizations about properties and relationships to become more explicit.  For example, students are asked to identify and generalize about patterns, relationships and structure in mathematics. They are given tasks that require them to reason about unknown quantities. At early ages, they develop the ability to identify, describe and analyze how quantities vary in relation to each other.

As you may have noticed, I’ve been obsessed with tape diagrams recently.  In fact, I’m doing a Global Math Department session about them tomorrow night if you want to hear more. One of the benefits I haven’t talked about yet is their potential for developing algebraic thinking.

Take a look at this problem.

Nicora wants to buy herself a new bicycle that costs \$240.  She has already saved \$32, but needs to make a plan so she can save the rest of the money she needs.  She decides to save the same amount of money each month for the next four months.    How much money must she save each month to meet her monthly goal of buying a bicycle?

Many of you probably solved it by setting up the equation \$240= \$32+ 4x and solving for x.

However, younger students could also solve it by setting up a tape diagram like the one below.

After creating the diagram and using it to solve the problem, students can talk about writing a number sentence to represent the situation. This allows the to give meaning to each part of the equation. Students can discuss what the \$240 represents, what \$32 represents and what the missing number, x, represents. They can also discuss how they solved for the missing number. In this way, the tape diagram can be used to build developing algebraic thinking.

Want to know more?

Blanton, M., & Kaput, J. (2005). Characterizing a classroom practice that promotes         algebraic reasoning. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 412-446.

# Using Tape Diagrams to Solve Division Problems

I’ve been working with K-5 teachers on how to use tape diagrams to solve problems. During one of these workshops, a first grader peeked in and asked, “Teachers have to go to school too?”  It got quite a laugh, but it’s true.  We need time to sit with our peers and try new ways to solve problems. I also think it reminds us of what it feels like to be a student and see things through a different lens.

One of the problems we worked on was:

Ms. Placa spends a total of \$42 for 3 sweaters.  Each sweater costs the same amount. How much does each sweater cost?

Most of the groups solved this by using long division.

But let’s say you have students who don’t remember the long division algorithm (most likely because it never it held any meaning to them).  If they have been working with a tape diagram or bar models, they can solve it using that.

First they can draw a bar and split it into three equal boxes to represent the 3 sweaters.

Then they can try guessing in order to determine what goes in the box. You want to work with them on using efficient strategies for guess and check. For example, 10’s are easy to count by, so they can start with 10s.

They can see that they still need 12 more.  At this point, some students may know that they can divide 12 by 3 and it will give them 4.  If not, they can count by 2’s and then by 2’s again.

When they add what is in each box, they get to \$14 for each sweater.

The tape diagrams may seem strange to us at first if we haven’t used them before.  We need to learn how to use them just like students need to learn how to use them in a meaningful way. However, once they do, the bar models begin to make sense to them. Later, the models can be used to build to the algorithm so that the algorithm will have meaning for them.

Research shows that students can do well when they use diagrams to solve problems. However, the diagram alone does not hold magical powers.  While simply putting a tape diagram alongside a word problem aided higher ability middle school students, it did not seem to aid lower level students who received no instruction on how to use the diagram. As with any model or representation, students need guidance and opportunities to foster their understanding of it.

Want to know more? Check out:

Beckmann, S. (2004). Solving algebra and other story problems with simple diagrams: A method demonstrated in grade 4–6 texts used in Singapore. The Mathematics Educator, 14(1), 42-46.

Booth, J. L., & Koedinger, K. R. (2012). Are diagrams always helpful tools? Developmental and individual differences in the effect of presentation format on student problem solving. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(3), 492-511.

Yancey, A. V., Thompson, C. S., & Yancey, J. S. (1989). Children must learn to draw diagrams. The Arithmetic Teacher, 36(7), 15-19.